Sis (Cilicia 1226-1375)

Cilicia was a Christian Armenian kingdom situated in an area broadly comparable the south-eastern borders of Turkey with the Mediterrean. The fortress city of Sis was its capital. The region lay at a strategic position, just south of the mountain ranges between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. In 1198CE King Levon I became the first King to rule over a (more or less) united, Kingdom of Cilicia. The fortress town of Sis was chosen as the Kingdom’s capital.

The region was under sporadic attack from Mongol and the Mulak forces and its capital was finally captured in 1375, bring the existence of the independent kingdom to an end. This is the latest version of an electronic library of resources supporting the Cilicia Virtual Museum site. It offers free and immediate access to online resources for anyone wanting to explore further the context of the museum’s artifacts.  As the museum develops, more resources, in more languages, will be added. Subscribers to the newsletter will receive updates on all new developments. Any suggestions for additions to this list will be welcome.

Armenia, J. Armenian Cilicia: Dawn, Splendor and Twightlight of a Christian Kingdom during the Crusades, 2010, 123pp

Dashdondog, B. The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335). Brill, 2010, 289pp

Duggan, T.M.P. “Some Localizations in Western Cilicia Relating to the 1225 Campaign of Sultan Alaed-Din Keykubat.” In Anadolu ve Çevresinde Ortaçağ 5, 2012, 221-238.

Jacoby, D. ‘The Economy of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia: Some neglected and overlooked aspects.’ La Méditerranée des Arméniens (xi e-xv e siècle) (2014): 261-291.

Kouymjian, D. ‘Armenia From The Fall Of The Cilician Kingdom (1375) To The Forced Emigration Under Shah Abbas (1604)’, The Armenian people from ancient to modern times 2 (2004): 25.

Kouymjian, D. ‘The Intrusion Of East Asian Imagery In Thirteenth-Century Armenia: Political And Cultural Exchange Along The Silk Road’ In The Journey of Maps and Images on the Silk Road, pp. Brill, 2008, 119-134.

Payaslian, S. ‘The Cilician Kingdom, the Crusades, and the Invasions from the East.’ in XXXXXXX The History of Armenia: From the Origins to the Present, New York, 2007, 77-100.

Pogossian, Z. ‘An ‘Un-Known and Unbridled People’: Vardan Arewelc ‘i’s Colophon on the Mongols’, Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies 23, 2014, 7-48.

La Porta, S.  “The Armenian Episcopacy in Mamluk Jerusalem in the Aftermath of the Council of Sis (1307).” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 17, no. 2 (2007): 99-114.

Lin, W-S. The role of regional geographical factors and political institutions in thirteenth-century and fourteenth-century Cilician long-distance trade. PhD Thesis, Birmingham, 2019.

Novák M., e.a. ‘A Comparative Stratigraphy of Cilicia’, Altorientalische Forschungen 2017; 44(2): 150–186

Payaslian S. and S. Payaslian. “The Cilician Kingdom, the Crusades, and the Invasions from the East.” The History of Armenia: From the Origins to the Present (2007): 77-100.

Schabel, C.D. ‘Géraud de Veyrines, Bishop of Paphos, and the Defense of the Kingdom of Armenia in the 1320s’, . Perspektywy Kultury30(3) 2020, pp.81-104.

Shnorhokian, R. Hayton of Korykos and La Flor des Estoires: Cilician Armenian Mediation in Crusader-Mongol Politics, c. 1250-1350. PhD thesis, Queen’s University (Canada), 2015.

Stewart, A.  “The assassination of King Het’um II: the conversion of the Ilkhans and the Armenians.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 15, no. 1 (2005): 45-61.

Stewart, A. “The Logic of Conquest: Tripoli, 1289; Acre, 1291; why not Sis, 1293?.” Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 14, 1, 2002,  7-16.

Svazlian, V. “The Tercentennial Glory of the Armenian Kingdom of Ciliica and the Self-Defensive Battles of the Zeytountsis.” Tigran Tsoulikian, transl. Fundamental Armenology 1, 11, 2020, 5-21.

Tinoyan, D.  ‘The Relationships of Secular and Spiritual Powers in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1240-50’s.’ Բանբեր Հայագիտության= Вестник Арменоведения= Journal of Armenian Studies 2 (2016): 58-68.

Thungren Lindbärg, J. Between Old and New Rome: Armenian and Bulgarian Contacts with the Papacy around 1204 PhD thesis, Stockholm University2021.

Wilson, S.J. The Latin Principality of Antioch and Its Relationship with the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, 1188-1268, PhD thesis, Nottingham-Trent, 2016, 209pp

Vanderkerkhof, D. The Origins, Development, and Spatial Distribution of Medieval Fortifications and Rural Settlements in Cilicia 1075-1375. PhD Thesis, Cardiff, 2014. 533pp

Vardanyan, A. R. “Christian-Islamic Symbiosis Emerged In Money: Coins As A Tool For Political And Economic Propaganda.” Shedet 2, no. 2 (2015): 23-39.

Günder Varinlioǧlu, “The Archaeology of Late Antique and Medieval Cilicia: Landscape, Architecture, and Connectivity”, Annuaire de l’École pratique des hautes études (EPHE), Section des sciences historiques et philologiques, 150, 2019, 188- 194.

Yildiz, S.N. ‘Reconceptualizing the Seljuk-Cilician frontier: Armenians, Latins, and Turks in conflict and alliance during the early thirteenth century’, in In Borders, Barriers, and Ethnogenesis: Frontiers in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages,. 2005, 91-120