Rediscovering Trowulan: Ancient ruins of Trowulan, a historical site in Indonesia, showcasing rich cultural heritage

Trowulan 1293-1450/1500 |Majapahit (Java)

The Majapahit kingdom was the last Hindu-Buddhist empire in the Indonesian archipelago. Trowulan was its capital. At its height, the kingdom controlled a  vast network of tribute relations (the exact nature of which is even now in dispute) stretching into Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and the coastal regions of Borneo. After a bitter succession struggle in 1405-06 its fortunes declined. 

This is the latest version of an electronic library of resources supporting the Rediscovering Trowulan exhibition. It offers free and immediate access to online resources for anyone wanting to explore further the context of the museum’s artifacts.  As the museum develops, more resources, in more languages, will be added. Subscribers to the newsletter will receive updates on all new developments. Any suggestions for additions to this list will be welcome.

Adrisjianti, I. (ed) M A J A P A H I T Batas Kota dan Jejak Kejayaan di Luar Kota, Yogjakarta, 2014, 333pp

Aelst, A. van, ‘Majapahit picis; The currency of a ‘moneyless’ society 1300-1700’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 151, 3, 1995, 357-393.

Aoyama, T. ‘A new interpretation of the east-west division of Majapahit in the late fourteenth century’, Southeast Asia: History and Culture, 21, 1992, 65-87.

Ayuhanafiq, e.a. Kampulan Cerita Majapahit, 2010. 125pp

Burhanamuddin, S. e.a.  Pelayaran Napak Tilas Kerajaan Majapahit, 2021. 143pp.

Evers, H.D, ‘Nusantara: History of a concept’, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 89, 1, 2016,  3-14.

Gommans, J.J.L. and Klöber Rafael, L.M., ‘Java’s Mongol Demon. Inscribing the Horse Archer into the Epic History of Majapahit’,in  HerStory. Historical Scholarship between South Asia and Europe: Festschrift in Honour of Gita Dharampal-Frick, 2018, 249-259.

Gomperts, A., Haag, A. and Carey, P ‘Stutterheim’s enigma The mystery of his mapping of the Majapahit kraton at Trowulan in 1941’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde  164, 4, 2008, 411-430.

Gomperts, A., Haag, A. and Carey, P ‘Rediscovering the royal capital of Majapahit’, IIAS Newsletter, 53, 2010, 12-13

Gomperts, A. e.a. ‘Archaeological Identification of the Majapahit Royal Palace: Prapañca’s 1365 Description Projected onto Satellite Imagery’, The Journal of the Siam Society. 102, 2014, 67-118.

Guy, J. ‘The Vietnamese Wall Tiles of Majapahit ‘, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, 53, 1988-89, 27-46.

Hall, K., 1996. ‘Ritual networks and royal power in Majapahit Java’, Archipel52, 1, 1996, 95-118.

Haryono, T. ‘Kerajaan Majapahit. Masa Sri Rajasanagara sampei Girindrawarddhana’, Humaniora, 5, 107-113.1997,

Lutfillah, N.Q., e.a. ‘The Existence of Accounting on Local Trade Activity in the Majapahit Kingdom (1293 AD -1478 AD)’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, 2015, 783-789.

Muljana, S. Menuju Puncak Kemegahan “Sejarah Kerajaan Majapahit, 235pp (partial download only)

Munandar, A.A. ‘Majapahit and the Contemporary Kingdoms: Interactions and View’, Berkala Arkeologi, 40, 1, 2020, 1-22.

Nastiti, T.S., 2021. ‘Maritime in the Literary Works during The Kaḍiri-Majapahit Period (XII–XVI Centuries)’, Kapata Arkeologi17, 1, 2021, 21-32.

Noorduyn, J. ‘Majapahit in the Fifteenth Century’ in Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, 2/3 1978, 207-274.

Ricklefs, M.C. . A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200. London. 1993 3rd ed. 515pp (especially 1-25)

Sejarah Majapahit’ 19pp

Sofyan. Y.M. Kekusaan Jawa: Studi komparatif sistem kekuasaan kerajaan Majapahit dan Demak, MA Thesis, Jakarta, 2010. 115pp

Wahyudi, D.Y. and Munandar, A.A. “May. Majapahit: Reflection of the Religious Life (14th–15th AD)’In fourth Asia-Pacific Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, Arts and Humanities Stream (AHS-APRISH 2019), Atlantis Press, 2023, 104-115.


Kieven, L., Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs, 2013, Leiden 416pp

Kubontubuh, C.P. and Martokusumo, W.,’Meeting the past in the present: Authenticity and cultural values in heritage conservation at the fourteenth-century Majapahit heritage site in Trowulan, Indonesia’, International Journal of Heritage Studies26, 5, 2020, 469-479.

Menelusuri Rancang Bangun Perahu Pada Masa Kerajaan Majapahit Studi Persiapan Samodra

Rachman, D.A.,’ Majapahit Terracotta Figurines: Social Environment and Life’, Humaniora, 7, 1, 2016, 29-36

Vickers, A. ‘Majapahit and Panji Stories’ in C. Kubuontubuh and P. Carey (eds), Majapahit: Inspiration for the World. Jakarta, 2014, 47-66.

Wahyudi, D.Y. and A.A. Munandar, ‘Pusat Pendidikan Keagamaan Masa Majapahit’, Jurnal Studi Sosial, 6, 2, 2014, 107-119.

Yustana, P., ‘Trowulan kota terakota’,. Ornamen8, 1, 2011